Keyholes Explained: Research Paves Way for Better AM Parts

March 6, 2019

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Keyhole forming under powder during metal 3-D printing
Keyholes Explained: Research Paves Way for Better AM Parts
Using high-speed X-ray technology, researchers reportedly have been able to determine how laser power and speed affect the formation of keyholes, or pockets produced during additive manufacturing (AM) via the laser bed fusion process. As a laser travels across a bed of material to create part layers during 3D printing, voids of various sizes and shapes form, sometimes resulting in gas pockets that negatively affect part density and ultimately, quality.

Conventional wisdom has held that powder material or laser strength were to blame, but a team led by researchers from Carnegie Mellon University and Argonne National Laboratory believe they have cracked the code, providing insight on how pocket sizes can be predicted and minimized.

SLM 3D Printed Single-Piece Rocket
Orbex Builds World’s Largest Single-Piece Rocket Engine 3D Printed on the SLM®800 Selective Laser Melting Machine
Chris Larmour, CEO of Orbex, reveals Europe's most modern, environmentally friendly and reusable launch vehicle. Of partnering with SLM Solutions to 3D print the world's largest single-piece rocket engine Larmour stated, “This allows us to build reliably in a repeatable manner at a reduced cost."

Webinar: Simplify Your Metal Additive Manufacturing Workflow
Register for 3D Metal Printing’s webinar on Wednesday, March 27 from 2 to 3 p.m. EDT and 3D Systems software experts will share valuable insights such as:
  • How a streamlined metal AM process will help reduce lead time, allowing you to meet the most demanding customer deadlines;
  • How productivity is the critical factor in achieving a fast return on your AM investment and improving business profitability;
  • Why an independent integrated software solution is superior to multiple independent AM software solutions;
  • The challenges to be aware of when looking to build your AM facilities;
  • What to look for in an AM software vendor; and
  • A sneak peek at 3DXpert all-in-one integrated AM software.

Anything Factory
Show Your Kids the Anything Factory
From GE Additive, an inspiring look at what 3D printing brings, and will bring—aimed at the future of our industry.

High-Performance Vacuum Debind and Sintering Furnaces
Centorr Vacuum Industries is a manufacturer of high performance vacuum debind and sintering furnaces for the 3D Additive Manufacturing furnace market, as well as units for Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding. Available with either metal or graphite hot zones, these units can process all of the most common metals including Fe-Ni, 316-L, 17-4PH, and Inconel powders and feedstocks as well as a variety of other materials including Titanium, tungsten carbide, tool steels, and superalloys. The new Sintervac AM™ operates at pressures of 0-15 torr as well as positive pressures of Argon, Nitrogen, or Forming Gas for increased flexibility of processing binder-jetted parts, while the Workhorse AM™ is used for the heat treat, annealing, and tempering of laser-sintered parts. For more information, contact the sales department at 603-595-7233, sales@centorr.com or www.centorr.com.

CNH Offers First Plastic 3D Printed Spare Parts
CNH Offers First Plastic 3D Printed Spare Parts, Metal Next
CNH Industrial N.V., a major manufacturer comprising such well-known brands as Case IH and New Holland Agriculture, announced a company first: the 3D printing of spare parts. The first spare components created via AM include four parts for use on buses and agricultural equipment, made from plastic. Testing now underway is expected to lead to production of metal spares, according to company officials.

Renishaw Metal AM Tutorial Series
Supports Covered in Latest Installment of Renishaw Metal AM Tutorial Series
In a video series, Marc Saunders, director of AM applications for Renishaw, discusses key factors that drive the success rate and productivity of metal AM builds as well as some of the critical guidelines that designers should follow to create production components efficiently. This installment: AM supports.

RAPID + TCT 2019 - See the Latest 3D Technologies
Known worldwide as North America’s most important additive manufacturing event, RAPID + TCT is where the entire community convenes to share what’s new and solve their toughest manufacturing challenges. See the latest 3D technologies from 350+ exhibitors, learn real-world additive manufacturing solutions from industry experts, and network with 6,000+ attendees.

Siemens PLM Podcast Details Industrial AM
In a new podcast series from Siemens, Is Your Company Ready for Industrial-Scale Additive Manufacturing (ISAM)?, Dean Haehnel, director of marketing, and Robert Meshel, director of the Siemens Additive Manufacturing Network initiative, discuss ISAM’s capabilities in detail and offer insight into how a company can prepare for industrial-scale printing.

AM in Mexico: Be There with 3DMP
Mexico is hot on AM, and getting hotter. On June 12-13, the Mexico Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Conference takes over the Safi Valle Hotel in Monterrey, Mexico. Interact with industry experts and learn about 3D printing equipment and materials, and production applications in aerospace, automotive, medical and other industries.

AMUG Conference
2019 AMUG Conference
The AMUG Conference provides a unique additive manufacturing (AM) training and education experience. Designed to facilitate information exchange between AM users, the conference brings together individuals of all experience levels that wish to do more with AM. What makes the AMUG Conference particularly unique is the openness of attendees and their willingness to share. The AMUG Conference runs from March 31 to April 4, 2019. For information and links to registration, visit www.amug.com.

Industry News
Today’s News
Optomec Announces Controlled Atmosphere DED Systems
Award-Winning 3D Printed Tool Cuts Through Titanium
Markforged Announces Additive Manufacturing University
AMUG Announces 2019 Scholarship Recipients

In This Issue
3D Printing: Ford Is on Board
With its Advanced Manufacturing Center in Michigan, the Big Three automaker hopes to grow its 3D printing capabilities for support and production. A first look reveals that Ford is well on its way.

Best of Both Worlds: Blending Additive and Conventional Manufacturing
...solves multiple challenges for this industrial-filter manufacturer.

Coming in the Spring 2019 Issue
RAPID + TCT PreviewGet the lowdown on this major North American 3D printing event, May 20-23 in Detroit, MI, and see what new technology will be on display.

AMUG Wrapup—AMUG’s stellar conference package combined with education-based exhibits delivers a heap of must know AM info...find out what the editors of 3D Metal Printing saw and heard.

PMA Services Inc

Industry-Related Terms: Bed, Case, Center, Form, Forming, LASER, Lead Time, Tempering
View Glossary of Metalforming Terms



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