Tooling by Design
Deep Drawing--More Advanced Topics
For product designs that genuinely require uniform wall thickness, ironing can correct thickness variations caused by the deep-draw process. Ironing creates uniform wall thickness by controlling the clearance between the punch and the die. This may involve reducing the cup wall to a thickness equivalent to that of the original blank or reducing the cup wall below the original blank thickness in order to increase the cup body height.
Suppose that the product design requires a uniform wall thickness equivalent to the original blank. In this case, only the top (open end) of the cup wall is ironed since the wall near the bottom of the cup is already near the original blank thickness (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1—Thickness Distribution
Sometimes more severe ironing is employed to reduce wall thickness below that of the original blank thickness. This usually is done to increase cup body height. Of course, there is a limiting reduction for a single ironing stage but the largest possible reduction should always be made. Unless the material is especially ductile, a 50 percent reduction in wall thickness represents a good starting point. Even though there are cases where 90 percent reduction in wall thickness has been reported for a single ironing operation, consider these unique cases where the combination and control of material properties, tooling geometry and lubrication were ideally suited for the particular process.
A common misconception is that ironing adds an additional process step
Fig. 2—Draw, Redraw and Ironing Tool
Shallow cup drawing is another type of drawing process. Similar to deep drawing, it often is performed without the use of a blankholder. Shallow cup drawing usually requires the depth of the drawn cup to be less than its diameter, but an overriding factor is the percentage of material thickness (t) relative to the blank diameter (D): % = t/D x 100
|Fig. 3—Radius and Bevel Design Parameters|
Other sources, including the Die Design Handbook (SME), recommend a minimum die entry radius of six to eight times stock thickness, or the use of a beveled die entry when drawing heavy-gauge material without a blankholder. It also has been found that wrinkling will not occur if the contact distance between the blank and the die face is less than three times stock thickness and the distance from the die opening to the initial blank contact point does not exceed 20 times stock thickness (Fig. 3). This rule applies to either the radius or beveled entry design. MF
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